E. Scullion, Northumbria University, eamon.scullion@northumbria.ac.uk

Energy and mass are coupled through small-scale structures in the solar chromosphere, from the photosphere and solar interior, to contribute towards widespread heating across a broad range of scales the solar corona. The mechanism by which this energy channeling occurs is a continued source of investigation in solar physics. One such significant portal for energy transfer is in the form of rapidly evolving fast spicules (aka type-II spicules, RBE and RRE events) which persist ubiquitously in both active and quiet Sun regions. Yet it is not always clear where the foot-points of coronal loops (the building blocks of the solar corona) appear in the chromosphere and there is not always a one-to-one correlation, with respect to the appearance of such energetic spicule events and coronal loops foot-points. Here we present detailed spectral imaging analysis of fast chromospheric spicules, as observed with the CRISP instrument at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, to investigate the key properties of fast spicules that make them an important source of coronal loop foot-point heating. We can make clear distinctions between spicules which are associated with loop foot-point heating to millions of Kelvin and those which contribute less energy to the corona. In this talk, I will also discuss the energy contribution from small-scale chromospheric swirls, aka magnetic tornadoes, as an alternative method for channeling sufficient energy outwards to heat the solar corona.