M. Carlsson, University of Oslo, mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

In this talk, we will present 3D "realistic" radiation-MHD simulations spanning the solar atmosphere from the convection zone to the corona, and synthetic observations calculated from the simulations. We will especially focus on what the comparison between the synthetic observations and observations from the the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope and from the IRIS satellite tell us about the heating of the solar chromosphere. We will also employ semi-empirical modelling and 1D radiation hydrodynamics models to further our understanding of the heating of the solar chromosphere.